Ethno-Botany

The following is a summary of herbs, trees, and plants that were used by the Abenaki People. No dosage or usage information has been provided -
Do Not attempt to use this information for medical purposes.

Cautionary Note - Everyone has different reactions, allergies, or sensitivities to foods, herbs, plants, mushrooms, medicines, etc. Always test your reaction to a new item by minimal contact or very small dose. Do not attempt to use any herbal medicine without first being assured that you can use it safely. Remember, it took generations of our ancestors to find out which herbs and plants were good for them. In the same way we must re-learn and gain our own personal experience to which things are to our benefit.


Analgesic - a drug that relieves pain.

Analgesic: Arctium minus (LESSER BURDOCK)

Madah8dowibagw - devil’s leaf

Carum carvi (CARAWAY)

? Unknown Abenaki word ?

Cornus canadensis (BUNCHBERRY DOGWOOD)

Batkilawinbizon - pain in the side medicine

Plantago major (COMMON PLANTAIN)

8wdiibagw - white man’s foot

Ranunculus acris (TALL BUTTERCUP)

Wiz8wibemi, Pskwasaw8m


Anthelmintic - a drug used for the treatment of intestinal parasites.

Anthelmintic: Cirsium arvense (CANADIAN THISTLE)

G8wiz - little thorn

Populus tremuloides (QUAKING ASPEN)

Wawabibagw


Antihemorrhagic - a drug that stops hemorrhage, especially internal bleeding.

Antihemorrhagic: Maianthemum racemosum (FEATHER SOLOMON’S SEAL)

Salem8n

Polygonatumpubbescens (HAIRY SOLOMON’S SEAL)

Polyganatum biflorum or Smilacina stellata

8pkweskak - joint plant


Antirheumatic (External) - a drug used for rheumatism or arthritis and that is applied externally, for example - a liniment.

Antirheumatic (External): Arctium minus (LESSER BURDOCK)

Madah8dowibagw - devil’s leaf

Mitchella repens (PARTRIDGE BERRY)

Babedegwibagasig, Bakeswimen

Plantago major (COMMON PLANTAIN)

8wdiibagw - white man’s foot

Symplocarpus foetidus (SKUNK CABBAGE)

Spathyema foetida

Sieg8gwibagw - skunk plant

Taxus canadensis (CANADA YEW) (GROUND HEMLOCK)

Sagask8dakw

Thuja occidentalis (EASTERN ARBORVITAE)

? Unknown Abenaki word ?

Tsuga canadensis (EASTERN HEMLOCK)

Alnizedi


Antirheumatic (Internal) - a drug used for rheumatism or arthritis and that is taken internally, for example - aspirin.

Antirheumatic (Internal): Arctium minus (LESSER BURDOCK)

Madah8dowibagw - devil’s leaf

Taxus canadensis (CANADA YEW) (GROUND HEMLOCK)

Sagask8dakw

Tsuga canadensis (EASTERN HEMLOCK)

Alnizedi


Blood medicine - a medicine that is used to purify or influence the blood.

Blood Medicine: Aralia nudicaulis (WILD SARSAPARILLA)

Sas8ksek


Carminative - a drug that relieves flatulence or gas.

Carminative: Acorus calamus (CALAMUS)

Moskwaswaskw - muskrat plant


Cold Remedy - a medicine used for the relief or cure colds.

Cold Remedy: Achillea millefolium (COMMON YARROW)

Nahamaibagw - turkey leaf

Asarum canadense (WILD GINGER)

Skogadebakw - snake head plant

Chimaphila umbellata (PIPSISSEWA)

? Unknown Abenaki word ?

Coptis trifolia (THREE LEAF GOLD THREAD)

Lasawian, Sasawian - gold thread - little yellow root

Kalmia angustifolia (SHEEP LAUREL)

? Unknown Abenaki word ?

Ledum groenlandicum (BOG LABRADOR TEA)

Az8bkw


Cough Medicine - a medicine used for the relief or cure of coughs.

Cough Medicine: Asarum canadense (WILD GINGER)

Skogadebakw

Coptis trifolia (THREE LEAF GOLD THREAD)

Lasawian, Sasawain - gold thread, little yellow root

Epilobium angustifolium (FIREWEED)

Pabazin

Larix laricina (TAMARACK)

P8bn8dageso

Pinus strobus (WHITE PINE)

Goa, Koa


Dermatological Aid - a drug used to treat any conditions of the skin or hair such as acne, dandruff, or itching.

Dermatological Aid: Abies balsamea (BALSAM FIR)

Kokokha8wk

Alnus incana (MOUNTAIN ALDER)

Odopi

Tsuga canadensis (EASTERN HEMLOCK)

Alnizedi


Disinfectant - a drug used to eliminate infection.

Disinfectant: Abies balsamea (BALSAM FIR)

Kokokha8wk


Eye Medicine - a drug used for any afflictions of the eye.

Eye Medicine: Cornus sericea (RED OSIER DOGWOOD)

Makwakwsek

Corylus cornuta (BEAKED HAZELNUT)

Bag8niz

Salix sp. (WILLOW)

Ganozas


Febrifuge - a drug used to reduce fevers.

Febrifuge: Achillea millefolium (COMMON YARROW)

Nahamaibagw - turkey leaf

Arctium minus (LESSER BURDOCK)

Madah8dowibagw


Gastrointestinal Aid - a drug used to treat distress of the digestive tract.

Gastrointestinal Aid: Polypodium virginianum (ROCK POLYPODY) fern

Senikaladabagw


Hemostat - a drug used to stop external bleeding, this includes topical treatments for nosebleed.

Hemostat: Urtica dioica (STINGING NETTLE)

Maz8nibagw


Love Medicine - a drug to procure love from another.

Love Medicine: Nuphar sp. (YELLOW POND LILY)

Nymaphaca adena

Wiz8watawa


Other - a drug used for various conditions and ailments.

Misc. Disease Remedy: Achillea millefolium (COMMON YARROW)

Nahamaibagw - turkey leaf

Arctiumminus (LESSER BURDOCK)

Madah8dowibagw


Nose Medicine - a drug used for the treatment of various nose ailments.

Nose Medicine: Chimaphila umbellata (PIPSISSEWA)

? Unknown Abenaki word ?

Kalmia angustifolia (SHEEP LAUREL)

? Unknown Abenaki word ?

Ledum groenlandicum (BOG LABRADOR TEA)

Az8bakw


Orthopedic Aid - a drug used for afflictions of the muscles or bones.

Orthopedic Aid: Eupatorium perfoliatum (COMMON BONESET)

Zaz8bakwh8zik - it goes through the leaf


Other - a drug used for various conditions and ailments.

Other: Botrychium virginiannum (RATTLESNAKE FERN)

Masasizikwa - rattlesnake / Masozi - fern

Gymnocarpium disjunctum (OAK FERN)

Anaskemezii masozi - oak-fern


Panacea - a drug used as a cure-all.

Panacea: Abies balsamea (BALSAM FIR)

Kokokha8wk

Mentha canadensis (CANADIAN MINT)

? Unknown Abenaki word ?

Thuja occidentalis (EASTERN ARBORVITAE)

? Unknown Abenaki word ?

Trillium erectum (RED TRILLIUM)

? Unknown Abenaki word ?


Pediatric Aid - a drug specifically used for the treatment of children.

Pediatric Aid: Achillea millefolium (COMMON YARROW)

Nahamaibagw - turkey leaf

Botrychium virginianum (RATTLESNAKE FERN)

Masasizikwa - rattlesnake / Masozi - fern

Cirsium arvense (CANADIAN THISTLE)

G8wiz

Mentha canadensis (CANADIAN MINT)

? Unknown Abenaki word ?

Trillium erectum (RED TRILLIUM)

? Unknown Abenaki word ?

Verbascum thapsus (MULLEIN)

Madah8dowi odam8 - devil’s tobacco


Poison - a substance that usually kills, injures, or impairs.

Poison: Caltha palustris (YELLOW MARSH MARIGOLD)

? Unknown Abenaki word ?

Iris versicolor (HARLEQUIN BLUEFLAG)

Wl8watawa - blue tea

or Iris prisatica

Kskimokas, numb root, numb maker


Psychological Aid - a drug directed toward the mind and specifically toward issues of will or desire.

Psychological Aid: Nuphar sp. (YELLOW POND LILY)

Wiz8watawa

Nymphaea sp. (WATERLILY)

Bamagwaag - pond lily / Meskatak - pond lily root


Respiratory Aid - a drug used to help breathing.

Respiratory Aid: Acer pensylvanicum (STRIPED MAPLE)

8sagakw - strange tree


Sedative - a drug that reduces excitement or upset.

Sedative: Mentha canadensis (CANADIAN MINT)

? Unknown Abenaki word ?


Toothache Remedy - a drug used for toothaches as well as any other dental medicines. Toothache - Obid8gw8gan or 8bidawas.

Toothache Remedy: Verbascum thapsus (MULLEIN)

Madah8dowi odam8 - devil’s tobacco


Unspecified - a drug used as an unspecified medicine or to treat unspecified illnesses - with no specific information.

Unspecified: Abies balsamea (BALSAM FIR)

Kokokha8wk

Botrychium virginianum (RATTLESNAKE FERN)

Masasizikwa masozi - rattlesnake-fern


Urinary Aid - a drug used for problems of the urinary tract and by men for sexual organ problems.

Urinary Aid: Picea glauca (WHITE SPRUCE)

Mesazeso


Veterinary Aid - a drug used to treat diseases and injuries of animals.

Veterinary Aid: Sanguinaria canadensis (BLOOD ROOT)

Babagakanihl8g, bagakanihl8g - that which bleeds




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