N'dakina - Our Homelands & People


The following is a detailed description of N'dakina, our homeland. It includes all lands and waters that our ancestors of the above named groups lived, fished, hunted, trapped, planted, farmed, and harvested nature's bounty. In colonial times N'dakina covered all of New France and the colonial Commonwealth of Massachusetts. This area is now known as the province of Quebec, Canada, and the states of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, New York, and Massachusetts in the United States.

The following describes the boundaries of N'dakina by way of the rivers, lakes, landmarks, and the meeting points with the other First Nations People that border N'dakina. The primary descriptions of N'dakina are identified in the Aln8bad8wa (Abenaki) language.

At a starting point from - Nsawiwi pebonkik ta ali-nkihl8t (northwest from) where the Chateauguay River and the Ktsitegok (great river) - Moliantegw (St. Lawrence River) meet near Molian (Montreal). The Os8ganek (Algonquin place) is the point where the lands of the Abenaki (N'dakina), Algonkin, and Mohawk nations (Magwak) meet.

Waji nahil8t (going easterly) along the Ktsiegok (great river) Moliantegw (St. Lawrence River), past the Bitawbagwizibok (Richelieu River), past the Wigw8madenik (Yamaska River) and the village of both the Abenaki and Mohawk lived, past Masessolina (Sorel), past Pithiiganek (Nicolet) and the Pithiganitegw (Nicolet River), past Mad8balodnik and the village of Mad8balodniak (Three Rivers).

Continuing, Ali-nkihlot (easterly) past the Alsog8ntegok (St. Francis River) and Welinaktegw or W8linaktegw (the river which has long turns - which causes delay by its windings) (Becancour River) upon which Abenaki villages of Odanak and W8linack (Wolinak) are still occupied by the Abenaki People.

Continuing, Ali-nkihlot (easterly) along the Ktsiegok (great river) Moliantegw (great river) (St. Lawrence River) to the Kik8ntegok (river of fields) (Chaudiere River) upon which the Abenaki villages of St. Joseph de Collraine and Kwanah8moik (long point in the river bend) (Durham) and other Abenaki villages along the Koattegok or Koattegw (pine river) (Coaticook River), Namaskonkik (fish field) (Megantic Lake) were settled.

Continuing, Ali-nkihlot (easterly) beyond the Etchemin River (sand berries) and up to Kebek (Quebec) and the Isle de Orleans at the point that the Abenaki and Ksitegwiiak (the land of the Hurons) meet near the village of Pamadenainak (Lorette), up to village of O'bamasisek (Yamachiche).

Going inland to the Big Black River to the point that it joins the St. John River at the Notre Dame Mountains the point where the Abenaki meet the Moskwas (muskrat - Malecite - Maliseet - broken talker). Across the St. John River and along the the lands of the Malecite (Maliseet, Wulastegniak, Aroostook, St. John's - good river people) and further east to the land of the Passamaquody (Machias, Opanango, Pesmokant, Quoddy, Scotucks, Unchechauge, Unquechauge, St. Croix - plenty of pollock / pollock spearing place).

Sowanakik, (going southward) through the watersheds of the Allagash River, the Musquacook Lakes, the Chemquasabamticook Lake, the Churchhill Lake, the Chamberlain Lakes, the Caucomgomoc Lake, the Baker River, the Baker Lake, the Seboomook Lake, the Chesuncook Lake, the Moz8debinebesek (Moosehead Lake), and to the Kenebec (Kennebec River) and through Kwen8bagok (long lake - Kennebago Lake).

The Kenebec (deep river - Kennebec River) being the point where the Abenaki meet the Pan8bskaik (land of the Penobscot) Pana8bskaiiak (Penobscot Pentagoet, Panaomeska - plenty stones / rocky place / ledge place).

Going down the Kenebec (Kennebec River), past the ancient Abenaki village of Mol8joak (deep flow river) (Norridgewock) and continuing to the Sobagwa (great ocean - Atlantic Ocean).

The Abenaki villages on the Laesikantgw (rock shelter river - Androscoggin River) are the villages of Amescana and Narakamik.

Sowanakik (going southerly) along the coast of the Sobagwa (Atlantic Ocean), past W8linak (village on the bay - village of Wwenock), past Kaska, past Pejepskw (bad rock - Pejepscot), past the Laesikantegw (Androsooggin River), past the Presumpscot River, past Sokwakik (Saco) and the Zawakwtegok (Saco River), past Kinib8ka (rough ground) (Kennebunk), past the M'mosem (my moose river - Mousam River), past Ogwa8mkwik (at the accumulated sand -Ogunquit), past the village of Piscataqua on (great deer river) Pesgatakwa (dark river - Piscataqua River), to the outlet of the Mol8demak (deep river - Merrimack River) at the Sobagwa (Atlantic Ocean).

The Mol8demak leads to the Pemijewasek (Pemigewasset River) and to the lake of Wiwinebesaki (lake around lake - Lake Winnepisaukee), the Abenaki villages of this area are Wiwinebesakik land around lake place - Winnepisaukee Village), Akwadocta, Asepihtegw (river alongside - Ossippee), and Apikwehkik). The Abenaki villages on the Mol8demak are the villages of (Wamesit (fishing place), Nanaskik (place of fish - Manchester), Penokok (down hill - Concord), and Senikok (at the rocks - Suncook), Wiwinijoanek (water flows around it - Dover).

The other area lakes and waters are: Massabeskik (large lake - Massabesikick Pond), N8wijoanek (long rapids - Salmon Fall River), Seninebik (rocky lake - Lake Sunapee), and W8bagok (clear lake - Lake Umbagog).

Ali-ali-nkihl8t (westward) along the Mol8demak (Merrimack River) past the village of Wamesit to the Pagontegok (Concord River), a one day's walk from the eastern shores of the Mol8demak (Merrimack) and Concord Rivers lands of the Pawtucket (Agawam, Naumkeag, Saugus, Winnisinet) to the lands of the Msajosek (the great hill) (Massachuset Nation), Neponsit (Massachusett) and Shawmut (Massachusett), to the headwaters of the Concord, Sudbury, and Assabet, and Nashua Rivers lands of the Nsawiwi (between the rivers) (Nashua) (Nashaway, Washoc, and Nashoba) to the area known as the Narragansett corridor along the Blackstone River and lands of the Nipmuc (Nipmuck) Nation.

Ali-ali-nkihl8t (westward) to Wachuset (mountain of small / middle height - Mt. Wachuset) at the Warre River the meeting place of the Nipmuc and Abenaki.

Ali-ali-nkihl8t (westward) to Millers River, west to the Pokw8mtegok (very narrow river) (Pocumtuck River) and the land of the Pocumtuc.

Ali-nkihl8t (westward) crossing the Kwinitegok (long river - Connecticut River). The Abenaki villages along the Kwinitegok are the villages of Sokwakik (southern place - Squakeag), Ktispontegok (great falls - Bellows Falls, Vermont), Goasek (place of pines - Newbury, Vermont).

The rivers that feed the Kwinitegok are the 8manosek (fishing place -Ammonoosuc River), the Pasomkasik - Pemijoaswek (swift current - Pemigewasset River), and the Goategok (pine river - Coaticook River) (upper Connecticut valley).

The other lakes, rivers, and waters of N'dakina are the Menahanbagok, (island pond - Island Lake), Mamhiawbagok (wide water - Lake Mephramagog), Wasabastegok, Sobagwa (ocean - Sebago Lake), Nebiz8nnibizik (little medicine water - Alburg Springs), Mikazawitegok (black river - Black River), Bonsawinno (fire keeper - Lake Bomoseen), Pibesgantegok (roily river - Dead Creek), Nebiz8nnibik (medicine water - Highgate Springs), Massawippi (clear water - Holland Pond), Kwenosakek (pike place - mouth of Lamoille River), Kwenaskategok (long point river - La Platte River), Tamakwa (beaver - Maquam Bay), Masipskiwibi (flint water - Missisquoi Bay), Klahigantegok (wooden trap river - Nulhegan River), Pas8mkasik (clear sandy river - Passumpsic River), Kwenozasek (at the pike place - Pike River), and Wasabastegok (clear stream - White River).

Continuing, Ali-nkihl8t (westward) crossing the Kwinitegok to the Deerfield River and the lands of the Mahiganek (at the Mahigans) Mahican Nation.

Continuing, Pebonkik (northward) to Onegigwizibok (otter river - Otter Creek). The lands of the Green Mountains and Onegigwizibok (Otter Creek) and the lands beyond Lake George up to the western lands (Wawobzdenik, Senapskaizibok, and the lands of Ganienkeh) to the west of Bitawbagok (lake between - Lake Champlain) are the Wawobadenik (white mountains - Adirondack lands and mountains) between the N'dakina (Abenaki) and Magwak (Mohawk) nations.

The Abenaki villages on Bitawbagok are the villages of Winoskik (onion place - Winooski), Mskitegwa (quiet water - Milton, Vermont), and Mazipskaik (flint place - Swanton, Vermont), and on the river Onegigwizibok is the village of Natami pontegok (first falls - Vergennes, Vermont).

The rivers that feed the Bitawbagok are the Wazowategok (crooked river - Missisquoi River), the Wintegok (marrow river - Lamoille River), the Winoskitegok (onion river - Winooski River), the Seniganitegok (stone works river - Lewis Creek), and the Onegigwizibok (otter river - Otter Creek).

Continuing, Pebonkik (northward) up through the Bitawbagok (Lake Champlain) and all of its shores going north and west through the water sheds of the Chateuaguay and Bitawbagwizibok (Richelieu) Rivers back to the Ktsitegwiiak (St. Lawrence River).

The major mountains of N'dakina are: Gawasiwajo (windfall mountain - Mt. Kearsage), G8dagwjo (hidden mountain - Mt. Washington), Menonadenak (stands alone mountain - Mt. Monadnock), Wawobadenik (White Mountains or Adirondack Mountains), Pemapskadena (rocky mountain - Mt. Ascutney), Mozeodebe wadso (moose head mountain - Mt. Mansfield), Mateguasaden (rabbit mountain - Mt. Philo), Pisgag (dark - Mt. Pisga) and Wachuset (mountain of small / middle height - Mt. Wachuset), Dowabodiwadjo (saddle mountain - Camel's Hump), Mozal8mo (calls like a moose - Mt. Moosalamoo), and Mozalhlakik (cow moose land - Mt. Mooselauke).

This describes the Abenaki homelands, N'dakina bordered by the Magwak (Mohawk) to the west, the Ksitegwiiak (the land of the Hurons) and Osoganek (Algonquin Place) to the north, the Moskwas (Malecite-Maliseet), Mikm8z (Micmac), (Passaamakwadi) Passamaquoddy, and Pan8bskaik (Penobscot) to the east, the Massacusett and Nipmuc to the south, and the Mahiganek (Mahican) to the west. This describes the N'dakina that the Abenaki People claim to be their sovereign homelands.

Aln8bak - Our People

The greater Abenaki Nation includes all Abenaki and Pennacook Bands and groups, including but not limited to the following Aln8bak groups now known or previously known as:


Abenaki (Abnaki, Abenaqui, "eastern" Abenaki, "central" Abenaki, "western" Abenaki),
Aberginians,
Accominta (shore line),
Adirondack (Wawobadenik - white mountains),
Agawam (fish curing place),
Almouchiquios,
Amaseconti (Amesokanti, Anmissoukanti - abundance of small fish),
Amoskeag (one takes small fish),
Ammatoscoggin,
Androscoggin (Amariscoggin, Amerascoggin, Ameriscoggin - rock shelter place),
Anasagunticook,
Arosaguntacook (Arosaguntacook, Arrosaguntacook),
Aucocisco,
Bashaba,
Canibas,
Cochecco,
Cowasuck (Cahass, Cohassiac, Coos, Coosuc, Koes, Eastern Woodland People, Northeastern Woodland People - at the white pines),
Etchemin,
Green Mountain Band,
Kennebec (Caniba, Sagadahoc, Kanibesinnoak, Nurhantsuak,Kinibeki),
Kik8ntegok (river of fields - Chaudiere River),
Loup (Wolves),
Massapuag,
Merrimac, (Merrimacks - at the bottom of the "sand" hill),
Missisquoi (Mezipskwik Missiassik, Missisiak, Mazipskoik, Misiskuoi,
Missiassik, Missique, Missisco - place of flint),
Morattigan (Monchiggan),
Musketaquid,
Nashoba, (Nashua, Nashaway - the land between),
Natacook (Naticook),
Naumkeag (Naumkeg, Naimkeak, Naamkeek, Namaoskeag, Namaske),
Nechegansett,
Norridgewock (Newichawawock, Newichawannock, Newichawanoc, Norridgewock, Naridgewalk, Neridgewok, Noronjawoke - people of the still water between rapids),
Odanak (our village - St. Francis Jesuit mission),
Ondiakes (Ondiakee),
Onegigwizibok (otter river - Otter Creek),
Ouarastegouiak,
Oppenangoes,
Ossippe (Ossippee - lake made by river widening),
Otonic, Ouragie,
Owaragees,
Patsuiket,
Pawtucket,
Pequawket (Pigwacket, Pegouakki, Peguaki, Pequawket - at the hole in the ground),
Pejypscot,
Pechiepsacut,
Pemigewasset,
Pennacook (Penakuk, Panukkog, Peenecooks, Penagooge, Penakook, Penecooke, Penicoock, Penicook, Penikook, Pennacokes, Pennacooke, Pennagog, Pennecooke, Pennekokes, Pennekook, Pennokook, Penny Cook, Penny-Cooke, Pennykoke, Pinnekooks, Pnoacocks, Ponacoks, Sagadahoc), Saco (south place),
Rocameca (on the land upstream),
Soheg,
Sokoki (Assokwekik, Ondeake, Onaiake, Onejagese, Ossipee, Sakukia, Sokokiois, Sokoquios, Sokoquis, Sokokquis, Sokoni, Sokwaki, Soquachjck, Zooquagese - people at the outlet / people who separated),
Spirit Bear Band,
St. Francis (St. Fran├žois- du-Lac),
St. Joseph de Colraine,
Souhegan (Souheyan, Nacook, Natacook, Natticook),
Squamscot (Squam, Squamsauke, Wonnesquam),
Sunapee,
Suncook (Senikok - at the rocks),
Wachuset (at the small / middle sized mountain),
Wamesit (fishing place),
Washucke,
Wataunick,
Wawenock, (Wawenoc, Wewenoc, Ouanwiak, Sheepscot, Wawenock, Wawnock) (people of the bay country),
Weshacum,
Winnecowet,
Winnicunnet,
Winnipisauki (Winnepiscogee, Winnipesaukee, Winnepiseogee, Maunbisek, Muanbissek - the land around lake),
Winnisemet,
Winoski (Winoskik - onion place people),
Wioninebesek, and,
Wolinak (village at the bay - two villages - Becancour, Quebec and coastal Maine).

The above list is a historical representation of the known Abenaki and Pennacook groups, it does not exclude or include any group or groups that may be historically mis-identified or now identified with another "Eastern Abenaki" group.

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